Rail support modulus is an important factor in safety of railway track.In this paper, the results of a field investigation about the effect of ballast contamination on
Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which railroad ties (sleepers) are laid. It is packedBallast tamping machine as used in railroad track maintenance (Dade City, Florida). If ballast is badly fouled, the clogging will reduce its ability to drain
Keywords: frost heaving; ballast layer; subgrade layer; railway track.Introductionconfirmed with data observed by (1) field observation,.